Mainstream EA references

The mainstream EA paper formerly at this location has been moved here 50 years of Digital Transformation and EA

This page contains the references used in that paper, and other references, after this very brief preface.


Enterprise Architecture and Architecture Frameworks

The design and application of architecture frameworks has become one of the major approaches towards managing the complexity of systems.

The origin of this approach can be traced to back to the works of P. Duane Walker in the late 1960s.

As the director of architecture at IBM, Walker had established an enterprise analysis oriented planning tool called Business System Planning (BSP).

Beginning in the early 1980s, Walker’s student John Zachman carried the BSP approach forward…

(From “Complexity Management in Engineering Design – a Primer” By Maik Maurer.)


The Zachman architecture framework history is discussed also two references.


Also: in a 2007 interview with Roger Sessions.



Business Systems Planning” A methodology developed by P Duane Walker and adopted by IBM.

In the 50 years since, IBM changed it of course. See also the Wikipedia entry, and the web site of Robinson College of Business, Georgia State University.


“Information Engineering” Savant, Martin, J. and C. Finkelstein (consider also “Strategic Information Planning Methodologies”. Prentice Hall, 1989.)


Business Systems Planning and Business Information Control Study: A comparison” John Zachman, in IBM Systems Journal 21(1). P31-53.

Zachman, a fan of Walker’s BSP approach, spoke of “enterprise level architecture”.


Dispersion and Interconnection: Approaches to Distributed Systems Architecture  the PRISM report, from a consortium including IBM, DEC and others

This divided enterprise-wide architecture into business, data, applications and infrastructure technology domains.


A Framework for Information Systems Architecture” J.A. Zachman, IBM Systems Journal, Volume 26, No. 3, pp. 276–292, 1987.


Enterprise Architecture Model” National Institute of Standards and Technology.

This NIST EA Model had five layers: business, information, applications, stored data and platform technologies.


Extending and Formalizing the Framework for Information Systems Architecture”, J.F. Sowa, J.A. Zachman, IBM Systems Journal, Volume 31, No. 3, pp.590-616, 1992.

This proposed how to describe “the overall information system and how it relates to the enterprise and its surrounding environment.”


EA Planning  by Stephen Spewak (See entry in Wikipedia for references.)

This defined a data-centric planning process “defining architectures for the use of information in support of the business and the plan for implementing those architectures”.


IT Management Reform Act” (Clinger Cohen Act)

This made a federal agency’s CIO responsible for “developing, maintaining and facilitating the implementation of a sound and integrated IT architecture for the executive agency.”


Federal EA Framework, Federal CIO Council.


A practical guide to Federal Enterprise Architecture, Chief CIO council.


The Zachman Framework For Enterprise Architecture: Primer for Enterprise Engineering and Manufacturing.” By John A. Zachman. Zachman International.

This listed 10 key points for EA, emphasising that if you have not documented an architecture, you are implementing, not architecting.


Integrated Architecture Framework” (IAF) Cap Gemini. One of many EA frameworks; this one influenced the development of TOGAF 9.


EA as Strategy” Ross, Weill and Robertson. This reported and interpreted findings from MIT’s Center for Information System Research.


“Service Provisioning-Challenges, Process Alignment and Tool Support.” Bergstra, J. und M. Burgess (Herausgeber): Handbook of Network and System Administration. Elsevier


TOGAF 9.1” can be read at  This promotes and encourages EA with reference to the operating model concept from “EA as Strategy”.


“ArchiMate 2.1” can be read at


“ArchiMate 3.0” can be read at


Chris Ibbitson, Enterprise Architect (Financial Services) at Dimension Data


Avancier’s reference model for enterprise and solution architecture is downloadable from

FEAF and its references

EA is about data and processes first, technologies second, and socio-cultural system thinking barely at all.

E.g. The US government’s Federal EA Framework started with aims to share and improve business data and processes.

1996: The Clinger Cohen Act required that US federal government agency investments in major information systems be tied to improvements in business processes.

1998: The CIO Council began developing FEAF to promote shared development for common federal processes, interoperability, and sharing of information among the agencies other governmental entities.

FEAF v1.1 (1999) draws from three mainstream EA sources: Zachman, Spewak and the NIST EA standard.

It declares four aims, without mentioning technology:

·         “Organize Federal information including common data and business processes on a Federalwide (enterprisewide) scale

·         Promote information sharing throughout the Federal Enterprise and within segments

·         Help the Federal Enterprise develop architecture descriptions

·         Help the Federal Enterprise move more quickly toward developing new and improved processes”

It lists 37 references, which include the words data and information 35 times, and technology only 5 times. (See below.)



The Practice of Management.

Drucker, P.E.

Harper & Row, Inc.,


Data Structures Diagram.

Bachman, C.

Communication of the ACM. SIGBDP Database Vol. 1, No. 2,


Future Shock.

Toffler, A.



The Entity Relationship Model - Toward a Unified View of Data.

Chen, P.P.

ACM Transactions on Database Systems, Vol. 1, No. 1,


Structured Analysis and System Specification.

DeMarco, Tom.

Yourdon Press, Englewood Cliffs, NJ,


Information Engineering.

Martin, J. and C. Finkelstein.



Three-Dimensional Data Model.

Spewak, Steven H.

Data Base Newsletter, Vol. 10, No. 2,


Logical Database Design Technologies.

Brown, R. G., and the Data Base Design Group.

Data Base Design Group,


Entity Modeling: Techniques and Applications.

Ross, Ronald G.

Database Research Group, Boston, MA,


A Framework for Information Systems Architecture.

Zachman, John A.

IBM Publication G321-5298. 914-945-3836. IBM Systems Journal. Vol. 26, No. 3.


Handbook of Relational Data Base Design.

Flemming, Candice C. and Barbara von Halle.

Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA,


Strategic Information Planning Methodologies.

Martin, James.

Prentice Hall,


NIST Special Publication 500-167, Information Management Directions: The Integration Challenge,

Rigdon, Bradford W.



The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Leading Organization.

Senge, P. M.




Toffler, A.



Designing Quality Data Bases with IDEF1X.

Bruce, Tom.

Dorset House Publishing Co., Inc.,


Extending and Formalizing the Framework for Information Systems Architecture.

Sowa, J.F. and J. A. Zachman.

IBM Publication G321-5488. 914-945-3836. IBM Journal, Vol. 31, No. 3,


Enterprise Architecture Planning, Developing a Blueprint for Data, Applications and Technology.

Spewak, Steven H. with Steven C. Hill.

John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,


Reengineering the Corporation.

Hammer, M. and J. Champy.

Harper Business,


Paradigm Shift.

Tapscott, Don and Art Caston.

McGraw Hill, Inc,


A Brief Introduction to the Zachman Framework.

Burgess, Bruce H. and Thomas A. Hokel.

(800) 890-0902 Framework Software, Inc.


Database Processing.

Kroenke, David M.

Prentice Hall,


Building Enterprise Information Architectures, Reengineering Information Systems.

Cook, Melissa.

Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River, NJ,


The Model is the Business, Creating Customer Focused Organization.

Dickinson, Brian.

LCI Press, Kings Beach, CA,


Funding Information Systems Investments, October 25,

Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Memorandum M-97-02,

requires that Agency investments in major information systems be consistent with Federal, Agency, and Bureau ITAs.


The Clinger-Cohen Act


assigned the CIOs with the responsibility to develop information technology architectures (ITAs).


C4ISR Architecture Framework Version 2.0,

U.S. Department of Defense.



The Commandments of COTS: Still in Search of the Promised Land.

Carney, David J. and Patricia A. Oberndorf.

Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, May


Data Stores, Data Warehousing and the Zachman Framework, Mapping Enterprise Knowledge.

Inmon, W. H., John A. Zachman, and Jonathan G. Geiger.

McGraw Hill, New York, NY,


Information Technology Architectures, June 18,

OMB Memorandum M-97-16,



The Business Rule Book: Classifying, Defining, and Modeling Rules.

Ross, Ronald G.

Database Research Group, Inc.,


Software Architecture in Practice.

Bass, Len, Paul Clements, and Rick Kazman.



Redundant Systems Development Costs, The High Cost of Low Quality Data Presentation,

English, Larry P.



High Performance Client/Server.

Loosley, Chris and Frank Douglas.

John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,


Business Rule Concepts; The New Mechanics of Business Information Systems.

Ross, Ronald G.

Business Rule Solutions, Inc.,


Looking Back and Looking Ahead, Part 1.

Zachman, John A.

604-899-5452. DataToKnowledge Newsletter, Vol. 26, No. 3. May/June,


Looking Back and Looking Ahead, Part 2.

Zachman, John A.

604-899-5452. DataToKnowledge Newsletter, Vol. 26, No. 4. July/August,


Constructing Blueprints for Enterprise IT Architectures.

Boar, Bernard H.

John Wiley and Sons, Inc.,


Improving Data Warehouse and Business Information Quality: Methods for Reducing Costs and Increasing Profits.

English, Larry P.

John Wiley and Sons, Inc.,


Life is a Series of Trade-Offs and Change is Accelerating! 604-899-5452.

Zachman, John A.

Special Reprint from the Data to Knowledge Newsletter. January/February and March/April

Other references

Other references from the Object Management Group

Unified Modeling Language®: Infrastructure, Version 2.4.1 (formal/201-08-05), Object Management Group, August 2011.

Business Process Modeling Notation™ (BPMN™), Version 2.0 (formal/2011-01-03), Object Management Group, 2011.

Business Motivation Model (BMM), Version 1.1 (formal/2010-05-01), Object Management Group, 2010.